A Method of Cell Heat Balance Control to Enable Variable Power Usage by Aluminium Smelters

Examination of the heat balance distribution of both low and high amperage cells (160 and 390kA) and calculation of practical operating points for both given substantial changes in heat balance due to EnPot shell heat exchangers, as well as a proposed strategy to achieve this in practice given pot to pot variations.

 Depree, N.B., Gao, Y., Taylor, M.P., Chen, J.J.J. (2024). A Method of Cell Heat Balance Control to Enable Variable Power Usage by Aluminium Smelters. In: Wagstaff, S. (eds) Light Metals 2024. TMS 2024. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series. Springer, Cham.

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The Contribution and Economics of Demand Side Response Towards Decarbonizing the Aluminium Smelting Industry

Examination of the possibilities of decarbonisation of aluminium smelting using renewable energy and the need for power modulation. Includes a detailed examination of the value of power modulation for both coal and hydro supplied power grids, and the payback of an EnPot installation for an example 500MW smelter.

Depree 2022: Depree, N.B., Thomas, D.P., Wong, D.S. (2022). In: Eskin, D. (eds) Light Metals 2022. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series. Springer, Cham.

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Transformation of a Potline from Conventional to a Full Flexible Production Unit

Discussion of Trimet’s needs for power flexibility, and practical discussion of how a potline was retrofitted during operation including a full EnPot conversion plus magnetic compensation.

Duessel 2019: Düssel, R., Mulder, A., Bugnion, L. (2019). In: Chesonis, C. (eds) Light Metals 2019. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series. Springer, Cham.

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The 'Virtual Battery' - Operating an Aluminium Smelter with Flexible Energy Input

Discussion of the 12-pot EnPot trial system installed at Trimet Essen, with reporting of key operating results, showing the ability to operate the cells in a window from -13% to +20% of normal power input. Also including the effects on cell current efficiency and specific energy consumption.

Depree 2016: Depree, N., Düssel, R., Patel, P., Reek, T. (2016). In: Williams, E. (eds) Light Metals 2016. Springer, Cham.

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Technique for Low Amperage Potline Operation for Electricity Grid Storage

Detailed examination of the dynamic response of a high amperage cell to a large reduction in power input, and the heat balance changes necessary to maintain operability. Examination of the ability of Shell Heat Exchangers to allow a 390kA cell to operate at 290kA for a 25% power reduction.

Taylor 2015: Taylor, M.P., Chen, J.J.J.  Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E 2, 87–98 (2015).

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Energy Balance Regulation and Flexible Production: A New Frontier for Aluminum Smelting

Detailed analysis of cell heat balance and energy constraints relevant to the aluminium cell power modulation window, with a particular view to reducing overall energy usage. Includes detailed modelling results to identify feasible operating points of a low current density 360kA cell.

Taylor 2014: Taylor, M.P., Etzion, R., Lavoie, P. et al. . Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E 1, 292–302 (2014).

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Increasing the Power Modulation Window of Aluminium Smelter Pots with Shell Heat Exchanger Technology

Experimental results proving the ability of the Shell Heat Exchanger to increase or decrease shell heat losses to enable both upwards and downwards power modulation. This includes both laboratory testing relative to a 350kA cell and thermoelectrical modelling of a 222kA cell.

Lavoie 2011: Lavoie, P., Namboothiri, S., Dorreen, M., Chen, J.J.J., Zeigler, D.P., Taylor, M.P. (2011).  In: Lindsay, S.J. (eds) Light Metals 2011. Springer, Cham.

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Controlled Cooling of Aluminium Reduction Cell Sidewalls Using Heat Exchangers Supplied with Air

Discussion of the early development of the Shell Heat Exchanger technology and laboratory testing program for maximised shell cooling to enable capacity creep of smelting cells.

Namboothiri 2009: Namboothiri S., Lavoie P., Cotton D. and Taylor, M.P., Light Metals 2009

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